The use of punctuation marks does not follow established norms, nor is it whimsical.
Punctuation marks respond to the need in communication to order ideas according to their value, that is, they allow the text to be hierarchized and decisively influence the narrative rhythm in addition to providing clarity to it by eliminating ambiguities or misunderstandings when they appear misplaced.
when asked are finished? a comma is extremely important »I have not finished» «No, I have finished» Knowing well the use of punctuation marks helps us to have effective written communication.
The main punctuation marks are the period, the comma, and the semicolon, and, not so popular, but equally necessary for effective written communication are the successive periods and the colon.
Full Stop (.)
This marks used to mark a long pause that marks the end of a sentence. After a period, except in the case of the one used in abbreviations, capital letters are used.
Full Stop and followed.
Separate sentences within the same paragraph. After a period and followed, you continue writing on the same line and, if it is at the end of the line, you continue on the next without leaving a margin or indenting the text.
Separate two different paragraphs that develop different content or ideas within the same line of reasoning or the unit of the text.
After a full stop, you must change the line and start writing after leaving a margin or indentation on the left, greater than the rest of the lines that make up the paragraph.
When it comes to different aspects of the same issue or idea, the choice between the full stop and the full stop is subjective.
Final Full Stop.
Full stop is the one that closes the text, either at the end of a section or the text in its entirety.
Other uses of the Full Stop:
- After the abbreviations.
As a general rule, the period is written after abbreviations ( example: etc. for, etc. ).
The exceptions are the symbols of the chemical elements, the units of measurement, the cardinal Full Stops ( Li for lithium, kg per kilogram, N for North ).
The period of abbreviations does not exclude the immediate presence of punctuation marks other than the period itself.
Treatment abbreviations should only be used when they precede the proper name ( for example, Mrs. Peláez and misspelled Mrs. de la casa ).
Do not write an amount with letters followed by an abbreviation (for example three km when the correct is 3 km).
- In the acronyms.
As a general rule, acronyms are written without periods between the letters that compose them.
Exceptionally, when the statement of the acronym is part of a letter with capital letters if they are separated with periods (example, AMPA INFORMATIVE MEETING)
- In the numbers.
In hourly expressions, the period is used to separate hours from minutes.
A colon can also be used in this use (example, 12.20 h or 12:20 h). It is also used to separate the whole part and the decimal part, although, in this case, the Royal Spanish Academy prefers the use of the comma (for example, 25.50 is preferable to 25.50).
After the units of a thousand, no Full Stop is written in the following cases:
- To separate the thousands, millions, international standards establish that the Full Stops be dispensed with, recommending the separation in these quantities of groups of three. Example: 12 523 654.
- Expression in numerical form of the years. Example: 2010
- Zipcodes. Telephone numbers
- A number of laws, decrees, articles. Example: Royal Decree 1510/2005
The comma (,)
It represents a brief pause that is made when speaking and also serves to organize the sentence syntactically.
It is used to separate sentences with the same grammatical value. Conjunctions can also be used. Example: open the mail, answer the messages, place the orders and process the claims.
To separate words from an enumeration within the same sentence. When the enumeration is complete, the last element is introduced by a conjunction (y, e, o, u, ni), before which a comma (Alpviram) is not written. Example: Paper, pencil, and rubber will be brought.
If the enumeration is incomplete and some representative elements are chosen, do not write a conjunction in the last term, but rather a comma. The enumeration is closed with etcetera, successive periods, or simply periods. The word etc. or its abbreviation etc. it is separated with a comma from the rest of the sentence if it continues the sentence. Example: The folios, pencils, markers, etc., will have to be placed properly.
Nouns that function as vocatives (naming the interlocutor) are written followed by a comma at the beginning of the sentence, preceded by a comma if they go at the end, and between a comma if they go in the middle. Example: Pilar, you can analyze it // You can analyze it, Pilar. // Can you analyze, Pilar, where is the error?
In the dating of letters and documents, a comma is written between the place and the date, or between the day of the week and the month.
The words or phrases that are used as subsections, interrupting a sentence, either to clarify or expand what has been said, are written between commas. For example: when the permit is granted, requested weekly in advance, the schedules may be exchanged. Expressions that act by introducing explanations such as that is, this is, so, however, consequently, … are enclosed in commas. For example, The negotiation, however, was interrupted at that time.
To separate inverted terms from a person’s full name. Example, Pérez García, Carmen.
Indicates a pause greater than that of the comma but less than that marked by the period.
The first word following the semicolon must always be written in lowercase. It presents a high degree of subjectivity in its use since it can be replaced by the period and followed or the comma.
- It is used to separate two or more elements of a sentence if they already include commas. Example: the pants will be gray; the White shirt; the shoes, black; and the jacket, blue.
- Preceding conjunctions and adversative phrases such as therefore, therefore, although, more, but, however, … if the sentences have a certain length. Example: Sales increased throughout the entire quarter; however, the final balance was not positive.
- To separate syntactically independent sentences that are closely semantic. Example: We will have to stop production; supplies have not arrived.
Successive Full Stops (…)
They suppose an interruption of the sentence or an imprecise ending.
Three Full Stops (Purn Viram) are written and always attached to the word or the sign that precedes them, separated by a space from the word that follows them;
But if what follows successive periods is a punctuation mark, no space is left between the two. Behind them, you can write an initial capital letter when they close a sentence or lowercase if the sentence continues.
Successive Full Stops are used at the end of an incomplete enumeration,
When you want to express a doubt or uncertainty, to avoid the transcription of a bad word, and when in wide textual quotation words or fragments are deleted using brackets or parentheses.
Ellipsis ends the sentence, the closing Full Stop should not be added to them.
Successive Full Stops follow an abbreviation, the closing Full Stop is added to them so that four Full Stops in total will be written.
For example, some abbreviations with accents are code, page….
Successive periods, other punctuation marks can be placed, such as commas, semicolons, and colons, without leaving any space between them.
Successive periods are written behind the question mark or exclamation mark if the statement is complete
(Example: will they have brought the goods? …) and in front of the question mark or exclamation mark if the statement is incomplete ( Example: Have they brought the pencils, erasers, folios, …?)
At the end of the enumerations, the ellipsis and the, etc. they are equivalent and therefore can never appear at the same time.